The fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989 is the most significant symbol for the end of the Cold War. It offers the pictures to a process that started several years earlier. In 1985 Mikhail Gorbachev became the head of the Soviet Union and initiated changes that gradually shook the Eastern bloc. Though not intentionally, these changes eventually transformed the entire world order. The lecture will focus on how the Cold War came to end and what happened in Europe from the mid-1980s to the early 1990s.